Academic Writing

Perbezaan Makna Kata ‘Khas’, ‘Dewan’, dan Perkataan ‘Zon Kunci Kendaraan’ dalam Konteks Bahasa Melayu Malaysia dan Bahasa Indonesia

I. Pengenalan

Tidak ada yang membantah bahawa negara Indonesia dan negara Malaysia ialah negara serumpun Melayu. Latar belakang kebudayaan dan sejarah merupakan tali pengikat kedua-dua negara Banyak terdapat kesamaan antara kedua-dua negara. Salah satu kesamaan tersebut ialah kesamaan bahasa iaitu bahasa Melayu Malaysia. Akan tetapi, Bahasa Melayu Malaysia dan Bahasa Indonesai tidaklah sama persis karena masih ada beberapa perbezaan sama ada dalam pengucapan kata-kata (fonologi) atau makna kata itu sendiri (semantik).

Untuk menyimak hubungan rapat negara Indonesia dan negara Malaysia khasnya dalam persoalan kebahasaan, sebaiknya kita menyimak semula sejarah yang telah dijalin oleh kedua-dua negara. Di dalam buku yang bertajuk Mufakat Bahasa: Sejarah MBIM/MABBIM Sebagai Pembina Bahasa, Asmah Haji Omar telah mendedahkan sejarah yang sangat baik kepada khalayak pembaca mengenai sejarah pertautan bahasa Melayu Malaysia dan bahasa Indonesia. MBIM ialah kependekatan daripada Majlis Bahasa Indonesia-Malaysia dan MABBIM ialah kependekan daripada Majlis Bahasa Brunei Darussalam Indonesia Malaysia. Hubungan antara penuntut Malaysia dan Indonesia sudahpun wujud sebelum merdekanya Tanah Melayu Malaysia. Gabungan Pelajar Melayu semenanjung (GPSM) pernah menjemput wakil penuntut-penuntut Indonesia slam pertemuan-pertemuannya (Asmah Haji Omar: 2004)

Kekekalan hubungan ini seterusnya berlanjut sehingga meramabah kepada bidang akademik. Apabila Malaysia menubuhkan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) dalam tahun 1970, terlihatlah keperluan akan tenaga akademik Indonesia untuk menjalankan berbagai-bagai kusrsus akdemik, terutamanya sekali dalam bidan sains. Pada masa itu, jumlah ahli sains Malaysia yang dapat menjalankan kursus dalam bahasa Melayu Malaysia sangat kecil, dan ahli sains yang berbgangsa Melayu juga masih dibilang dengan jari. Sambilmenunggu mereka ini dapat latihan seperti yang diperlukan, maka tenaga-tenaga pakar dari Indonesia yang menjalankan tugas-tugas pengajaran akademik di UKM, agar hasrat menjadikan universiti berkenaan universiti yang menggunakan bahasa kebangsaan dalam pengajarannya dapat dicapai (Asmah Haji Omar: 2004).

Latar bekaang sejarah yang indadah ini juga hubungan rapat kedua-dua negara berkenan tidak pernah terputus oleh perjalanan waktu sehingganya sekarang ini. Bahasa Indonesai dan bahasa Melayu Malaysia atau disebut juga bahasa Malaysia akan selalunya bertanhan dan berkembang dengan baik. Akan tetapi, sudahpun dimaklumkan bahawa terdapat beberapa perbezaan antara Bahasa Indonesia dan bahasa Melayu Malaysia, walaupun perbezaan itu tidaklah terlalu sukar dipahami.

Untuk mengatasi kesukaran-kesukaran dalam memahami perbezaan bahasa Indonesia dan bahasa Melyu tersebut, maka perlu terus dipelajari. Sebagai mahasiswa antara bangsa Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia yang berasal dari Indonesia dan berkenaan dengan kursus bahasa Melayu Malaysia, melalui kertas kerja ini saya akan mededahkan beberapa perbezaan pengunaan kata-kata yang katanya sama tetapi memiliki makna yang berbeza dalam bahasa Indonesai dan bahasa Melayu Malaysia. Kartas kerja ini bertajuk Perbezaan Makna Kata ‘Khas’, ‘Dewan’, dan Perkataan ‘Zon Kunci Kendaraan’ dalam Konteks Bahasa Melayu Malaysia dan Bahasa Indonesia.

II. Tujuan

Penulisan dan pembentangan kertas kerja ini bertujuan untuk memberikan makluman dan membincangkan perbezaan-perbezaan kata-kata ’khas’, ’dewan’, dan perkataan ’zon kuci Kendaraan’ dalam konteks bahasa Indonesia dan bahasa Melayu Malaysia. Kertas kerja ini boleh memberikan ilmu pengetahuan kepada sidang pembaca khasnya rakan-rakan pelajar antara negara yang berasala dari Indonesia. Dengan memabca dan memahami kertas kerja ini diharapkan tidak akan menemukan semula kesukaran-kesukaran dalam menggunakan kata-kata ’khas’, ’dewan’ dan perkataan ’’zon kunci Kendaraan’ dengan baik dan betul. Baik bermakna kata-kata tersebut boleh digunakan dengan tidak menyalahi sosiolinguistik dalam bermasyarakat dan bergaul dalam masyarakat Malaysia. Betul bermakna kata-kata tersebut boleh digunakan sesuai dengan peraturan gramatika bahasa Malayu.

III. Perbezaan Makna Kata ‘Khas’, dalam Konteks Bahasa Melayu Malaysia dan Bahasa Indonesia

Menurut kamus Dewan Eja Pro, kata ’khas’ bermakana kata yg diperuntukkan atau ditentukan untuk seseorang atau sesuatu kegunaan, tugas, dll, khusus, istimewa untuk seseorang atau sesuatu. Dari definisi ini dapat dpelajari bahawa kata ’khas’ dalam bahasa Melayu Malaysia memiliki makna khusus dan istimiwa. Dengan perkataan lain, kata ’khas’ digunakan untuk memberikan perbezaan terhadap orang seseorang atau suatu benda.

Contoh ayat:

1. Rumah-rumah itu dibina khas untuk pegawai-pegawai kerajaan

2. Dr. Noriza ialah tetamu jemputan khas majlis tersebut.

3. Dimaklumkan kepada semua pelajar antara bangsa khasnya pelajar dari Indonesia untuk menghantar tugasan Bahasa Melayu 2 pada hari Jumaat.

Contoh-contoh ini mendedahkan penggunaan kata ’khas’ dalam bahasa Melayu Malysia yang menunjukkan kekhususan dan keistimewaan. Pada contoh nobor 1 kata ’khas’ mempunyai makna kekhususan bahawa rumah-rumah yang dimaksud hanya dibina untuk pegawai-pegawai kerajaan, tidak dibina untuk pegawa-pegai yang lain. Untuk contoh nombor 2 dan 3 adalah contoh ayat yang mendedahkan makna kata ’khas’ yang memberikan keistimewaan. Contoh nombor 2 menyebutkan bahawa Dr. Noriza lebih istimewa dari tetamu yang lain di majlis tersbut. Begitu juga dengan contoh nombor tiga yang menyebutkan keistimewaan bagi pelajar Indonesia berbanding dengan pelajar-pelajar antara bangsa yang lain.

Kata ’khas’ dalam bahasa Melayu Malaysia mempunyai beberapa turunan kata yang boleh digunakan sebagai berikut:

1. Mengkhaskan: mengkhususkan, mengistimewakan, menguntukkan (bagi orang, kegunaan, dll yg tertentu):

Contoh ayat: kawasan yg dikhaskan utk memelihara binatang ternakan; asrama yg dikhaskan utk penuntut-penuntut perempuan;

2. Terkhas : terkhusus, teristimewa, tertentu atau terbatas (kepada)

Contoh ayat: perpustakaan itu boleh digunakan oleh orang ramai dan tidak terkhas kepada penuntut-penuntut sahaja;

2. Kekhasan : kekhususan, keistimewaan, keunggulan.

Contoh ayat: Reaksi terhadap kesilapan kritikan lelaki yg kurang memahami kekhasan dunia dan jiwa wanita.

Dalam bahasa Indonesia, kata ’khas’menurut Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia memiliki makna khusus atau istimewa. Akan tetapi khusus dan istimewa di sini berbeza dengan makan kata ’khas’ dalam bahasa Melayu Malaysia. Kata ’khas’ dalam bahasa Indonesia telah mengalami penyempitan makna. Kata ’khas’ hanya untuk menunjukkan memberikan ciri kepada suatu benda atau daerah.

Contoh ayat:

1. Tempoyak adalah makanan khas Provinsi Jambi

2. Dagadu merupakan baju-T khas Yogyakarta

3. Baju kurung adalah pakaian khas gadis melayu di Malaysia

Contoh-contoh ayat ini mendedahkan makna kata ’khas’ yang menunjukkan ciri. Tempoyak ialah ciri provinsi Jambi, dagadu ialah ciri yogyakarata, dan baju kurung merupakan ciri gadis Melayu di Malaysia. Oleh kearana kata ’khas’ telah mengalami penyempitan makna, sehingga tidak memiliki turunan kata yang banyak seperti dalam bahasa Melayu Malaysia. Dalam bahasa Indonesai kata ’khas’ memiliki turunan kata ’mengkhaskan’ dan ’kekhasan’.

Dalam bahasa Indonesia untuk mengistimewakan seseorang atau sesuatu tidak lagi memakai kata ’khas’ tetapi langsung memakai kata ’khusus’ atau ’istimewa’. Sebagai perbandingan langsung lihatlah contoh-contoh ayat berikut.

Bahasa Melayu Malaysia:

1. Rumah-rumah itu dibina khas untuk pegawai-pegawai kerajaan

2. Dr. Noriza ialah tetamu jemputan khas majlis tersebut.

3. Dimaklumkan kepada semua pelajar antara bangsa khasnya pelajar dari Indonesia untuk menghantar tugasan Bahasa Melayu 2 pada hari Jumaat.

Bahasa Indonesia

4. Rumah-rumah itu dibangun khusus untuk pegawai negri

5. Dr. Noriza adalah tamu undangan istimewa pada acara tersebut.

6. Diumumkan kepada semua pelajar internasional khususnya pelajar dari Indonesia untuk mengumpulkan tugas Bahasa Melayu 2 pada hari Jumat.

IV. Perbezaan Makna Kata ‘dewan’, dalam Konteks Bahasa Melayu Malaysia dan Bahasa Indonesia

Dalam bahasa Melayu yang merujuk pada kamus Dewan Eja Pro, kata ‘dewan’ mempunyai beberapa erti iaitu:

  1. Balai (ruang) tempat diadakan sesuatu (seperti persidangan, perjumpaan, forum, ceramah, dll)

COntoh ayat: Tuan Syed Nasir telah memberi ceramah berkenaan dgn Bahasa Kebangsaan di dewan Hargreaves, Kolej Melayu Kuala Kangsar;

  1. Perbadanan (institusi, lembaga, dll) yg bertanggungjawab (bergiat, berkuasa, dll) dlm sesuatu bidang kegiatan dsb:

Contoh: Dewan Rakyat sedang membahaskan anggaran belanjawan;

Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka

Dewan Bandaraya

Dewan Perniagaan

  1. Mahkamah tinggi; seperti

Dewan Keadilan majlis tertinggi bkn adat di NS;

Dewan Keamanan

Dewan Keamanan Nasional dewan yg ditubuhkan oleh kerajaan utk mengawasi (menjaga) keamanan negeri;

Dewan Menteri Id jemaah menteri, kabinet;

Dewan Moneter Id lembaga yg berkewajiban menasihati dan mengawasi kewangan negara;

Dewan Nasional Id majlis yg mewakili masyarakat utk memberi nasihat kpd kerajaan;

Dewan Negara a) majlis mesyuarat tertinggi yg anggotanya dilantik oleh Yang di-Pertuan agong; b) Pr majlis tertinggi bkn adat;

Dewan Negeri majlis mesyuarat negeri; dan lain-lainnya.

Dalam bahasa Indonesia kata ’dewan’ yang merujuk pada Kamus Besar bahasa Indonesia mempunyai erti sebagai berikut;

1. Majelis atau badan yg terdiri atas beberapa orang anggota yg pekerjaannya memberi nasihat, memutuskan suatu hal, dsb dengan jalan berunding;

2. Mahkamah (tinggi) seperti

Dewan juri; panitia yg menentukan hasil sayembara (perlombaan, pertandingan);

Dewan keamanan; dewan yg dibentuk untuk mengurus segala sesuatu mengenai keamanan spt dl organisasi Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa;

Dewan kesenian; dewan yg bertugas membina dan mengembangkan kesenian;

Dewan komisaris; Man badan yg ditunjuk oleh para pemegang saham untuk menentukan dan mengawasi pengurusan perusahaan;

Dewan mahasiswa; dewan yg anggotanya mewakili para mahasiswa suatu universitas atau perguruan tinggi yg bertugas sbg lembaga eksekutif;

Dewan menteri; dewan yg beranggota para menteri dng tugas memberikan nasihat kpd presiden; kabinet;

Dari erti dan contoh-contoh di atas dapat dilihat perbezaan yang nyata antara penggunaan kata ‘dewan’ dalam konteks bahasa Melayu Malaysia dan bahasa Indonesia. Perbezaannya terletak pada makna pertama dalam bahasa Melayu Malaysia bahawa kata ’dewan’ bermakna balai (ruang) tempat diadakan sesuatu seperti persidangan, perjumpaan, forum, ceramah, dll. Dalam bahasa Indonesia tidak mempunyai makna tersebut. Kamus bahasa Indonesia tidak menyebutkan kata ’dewan’ bermakna balai atu ruang. Akan tetapi, kata ’dewan’ yang bererti mahkamah (tinggi) dalam bahasa Indonesia masih memiliki kemiripan erti dengan perbadanan (institusi, lembaga, dll) dan Mahkamah tinggi dalam bahasa Melayu Malaysia.

V. Makna Perkataan ‘Zon Kunci Kendaraan’ dalam Konteks Bahasa Melayu Malaysia

Dalam kehidupan sehari-hari di tengah masyarakat Malaysia khasnya di lingkungan kampus Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia perkataan ’zon kuci kendaraan’ sering ditemui di tempat-tempat parking. Dilihat dari sisi sosiolinguistik, sebagaimana disampaikan oleh Teok Kok Seong bahawa sebagai fenomena sosial, bahasa dilihat dalam perannya untuk melaksanakan berbagai-bagai fungsi, seperti menegur sapa, membujuk, dan menyampaikan perasaan. Kesemua fungsi ini adalah perlu bagi kepentingan sosial yang antaranya adala untuk mempereratkan hubungan, mencurahkan rasa hati, dan sebagainya. Dalam konteks ini bahasa dianggap sebagai alat komunikasi (2006).

Jika demikian dapatlah dipastikan bahawa baik bahasa lisan mahupun tulisan digunakan oleh masyarakat unutk menyampaikan suatu pesan tertentu. Perkataan ’zon kunci kendaraan’ yang ditulis pada papan pananda yang sering ditemui di lingkungan kampus UKM merupakan penyampai pesan yang memaklumkan sesuatu pesan.

Sebagai pendatang asing di Malaysia saya mempunyai pengalaman menarik mengenai perkataan ’zon kunci kendaraan’ ini. Perkataan ini pertama sekali saya jumpai di depan bangunan Pusat Pengurusan Siswazah (PPS). Saya baharu saja tiga hari di Malaysia pada semester pertama. Saya berasama rakan yang juga baru sampai di Malaysia memakai motosikal untuk mengurus pendaftaran oelajar baru di PPS. Apabila saya mauhu parking motosikal saya menjumpai perkataan ’zon kunti kendaraan’ maka saya memahami perkataan ini bahawa sesiapa yang ingin parking di sana harus memberikan lagi kunci tambahan kepada kendaraan yang dibawa supaya tidak dicuri oleh orang lain. Tapi sungguh hairan hanya berjarak beberapa meter dari papan penanda itu saya menjumpai papan penanda yang berlambang ’dilarang parking’.

Selepas melaksanakan pendaftaran di PPS saya kembali ke motosikal hendak pulang ke Hentian Kajang. Saya kemudian menjumpai sebuah kereta yang parking di bawah papan menanda itu sudal diberi kunta tambahan. Karena saya ingin tahu, maka saya mendekati kereta tersebut. Pertama saya berpikir beginilah orang Malaysia mengunci tayar kereta mereka. Kuncinya memanglah bagus ditambah lagi ada bendeara merah segi tiga yang dipasang di kunci tayar tersebut.

Tapi sungguh menghairankan lagi apabila saya menemukan surat saman yang ditinggalkan di kereta tersebut. Saya sengaja membaca surat samant tersebut bahawa pemilik kereta tersebut harus menebus kesalahan karena sudah parking tidak pada tempar yang sebenarnya. Selepas itu saya baru mengetahui bahawa perkataan ’zon kunci kendaraan’ adalah jika sesipa yang parking di dekat papan penanda tersebut maka tayar kendaraannya akan dikunci oleh pihak keselamatan.

Dari contoh ini, dapat disimpulkan bahawa untuk memahami bahasa tidak cukup hanya mengetahui kalimatnya sahaja. Akan tetapi harus memahami sosiolinguistik atau kebiasaan para pengguna bahasa tersebut. Perkataan ’zon kunci kendaraan’ boleh saja diertikan oleh pendatang asing dengan pelbagai makna. Tetapi bagi orang Malaysia perkataan itu sudah dapat dipahami dengan baik. Perkataan itu bukan suruhan (untuk mengunci kendaraan) tetapi adalah larangan (agar tidak parking kendaraan di daerah tersebut).

VI. Kesimpulan

Daripada perbincangan di atas dapat disimpulkan sebagai berikut ;

1. Kata ’khas’ dalam bahasa Melayu Malaysia dan bahasa Indonesia memiliki erti yang sama iaitu menunjukkan kekhususan dan keistemewaan. Namun dalam bahasa Indoneisa kata ’khas’ mengalami pergeseran kerana tidak lagi digunakan untuk menyebutkan kekhususan dan keistimewaan. Untuk menyebutkan kekhsusan dan keistimewaan menggunakan kata ’khusus’ dan ’istimewa’ itu sendiri.

2. Dalam bahasa Indonesaia tidak ditemuak kata ’dewan’ yang bererti balai atau ruangan. Tatapi kata ’dewan’ juga memiliki erti yang sama dalam bahasa Indonesia dan bahasa Melayu Malaysia iaitu kelembagaan atau institusi.

3. Perkataan ’zon kunci kendaraan’ harus digunakan dengan memahami sosiolingusitik masyarakat malaysia agar tidak terjadi kesalah pemahaman.

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ukmThe Shadow of Colonialism Economic Issues

on Literary Works

(Marxist Theory)

A. Introduction

When we get up in the morning today and switch on television, we will come to the news about economic complexity issues both local and international. People talk about Economic issue anywhere and in any occasions from formal forum to informal one. Economic issues, moreover today, become an endless topic since America faces the economic recession. It is predicted there will be global economic crisis and most of countries in the world certainly are impacted. That is globalization. As the U.S Ambassador Christopher F. Egan U.S. Mission to the OECD talking on “Globalization and the Economic Impact” said that “Perhaps the greatest impact and influence on the OECD and its members today, if not the world, is the phenomenon of globalization. As markets are opening up and we witness the integration of national economies into the international economy, the world economy is experiencing one of its most dynamic expansions ever – growing a full 35 per cent over the last seven years. Never before have we witnessed such human progress on such a broad scale and been faced with so many simultaneous challenges.(http://www.usoecd.org/documents/08-ambassador-metrowest-economic-forum.pdf.) This is an example of globalization problem on economic issues.

The economic problems do not only land on macro social community or international level (global) but also on micro social community (local) as well personal or family. Some of the problems are on paying rent or mortgage, getting a good paying job or a raise in pay, paying for food, paying for health care & insurance, paying credit card or other personal debt, paying for gas, losing money in the stock market, etc. these problems then become more complicated when people’s income is not enough to overcome these problem.

The economic problems both global and local, historically, have been discussing for centuries. Let us take period of English colonization and how history discussed about economic problems. According to Wikipidia that “the British Empire was the set of dominions, colonies, protectorates and mandates ruled or administered by the United Kingdom (UK), that had originated with the overseas colonies and trading posts established by England in the 17th century. It was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1922, the British Empire held sway over a population of about 458 million people, approximately one-quarter of the world’s population[1] and covered more than 14 million square miles, a quarter of Earth’s total land area.”(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Empire). The quotation must be underlined is that the motive of the colonization is establishing trading post. Thus, this is economic reasons.

It is also stated by Ronal Hyam in his Britain’s Imperial Century 1815-1914, the study of Empire and Expansion that “Victorian motives for expansion may be broadly in to economic and ideological. The economic impulse was to find market and outlets for the new manufacturing potential set in motion by industrialization, together with an increases need to find the raw materials to feed it.” (Ronal Hyam 1976: 47).

Theoretically, talking about economic issues, we cannot avoid the famous name of Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, then part of Prussian RhinelandMarch 14, 1883, London) who was an immensely influential German philosopher, political economist, and socialist revolutionary. The well known Karl Marx concept of economic is political economy. The term “political economy” originally meant the study of the conditions under which production was organized in the nation-states of the new-born capitalist system. Political economy, then, studies the mechanism of human activity in organizing material, and the mechanism of distributing the surplus or deficit that is the result of that activity. Political economy studies the means of production, specifically capital, and how this manifests itself in economic activity. (http://en. wikipedia.org/ wiki /Marxist# Marx_ and_Engels).

Russell Keat and John Urry in their book Social theory as science, quoted from the Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, stated that “Marx argued that in order to produce, men enter into definite connections and relations with each other. It is only within such relations that their actions in working on nature, that is production, takes place. Each set of the relations of production correspondence to a definite stage in the development of the materials forces of production. Such forces of production consist of land, labor power, row materials, plant, machinery, tools, technical and scientific knowledge, and the technical organization of production (Russel Keat and John Urry 1975: 101).

These economic issues then spread out into all element of life including work of literature. They are reflected in the literary works like play, film, prose, and poetry. If we come to the fact that the entire novel we read is talking about economic matter because they grow up among the society. The literary work are created, read, and studied by the people. Here we can take some title of the novel like The Singapore Grip written by J.G Farrel which is a historical novel that has been widely commended for breadh of its canvas and its evocation of the last days of an old colonial society, and An American Visitor by Joce Carry which most directly addresses the problematic of economics of imperialism. (Darby 1998:195).

Therefore, to discuss economic problem in the literary works, Marxist Literary Theory is appropriately to apply. This theory examines literature in its cultural, economic, and political context. It explores the relation between the artist and the society. It is also concerned with the social content of literary works, pursuing such questions as: What cultural, economic or political values does the text implicitly or explicitly promote? What is the role of the audience in shaping what’s been written? Marxist critics assume that all art is political. Marxist critics judge a work’s “ideology”–giving rise to such terms as “political correctness.”

Shortly, the Marxist Literary Theory can be depicted as below

Art is part of the superstructure of society.

Literary works are not mysteriously inspired, or explicable in terms of their authors’ psychology. They are forms of perception, ways of seeing the world, comes from the reality.

A relation to that dominant way of seeing the world which is the social mentality or ideology of the age.

Ideology is the product of concrete social relations – class-relations.

Not free to choose one’s social relations – constrained into them by material necessity.

Therefore, by applying this theory I would like to discuss some short stories and poetries that I selected from various colonized countries under the title The Shadow of Colonialism Economic Issues on Recent Literary Works.

B. The Shadow of Colonialism Economic Issues on Recent Literary Works.

Writing on the title The Shadow of Colonialism Economic Issues on Recent Literary Works, at least there are three important keys words that can lead us to the content of this writing. First the shadow, according to wikipedia that, “a shadow is an area where direct light from a light source cannot reach due to obstruction by an object. It occupies all of the space behind an opaque object with light in front of it.” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shadow). It means that through this point I would like to cultivate the shadow of an objective. The objective is colonization. Secondly, it is Colonialism Economic Issues that means I want to explore the economic issues in literary works that select for this anthology. Third, it is literary works that I select 4 short stories and ten poetries.

This essay, The shadow of Colonialism Economic Issues on Recent Literary Works, is an analysis of selected literary works both short stories and poetries that are composed by writers who were born in various colonized countries. The works selected are believed reflecting the problematic economic issues where the shadow of colonization still colored them. Colonization had left them traumatic memories that always appear in any form like literary one. In other words that literary work is one of the media of showing their experience whether they get it by direct knowledge or from reading any historical book or other resources. The depiction of this writing is to prove that colonization even though had been finished years ago but it is still alive in this literary work, not really live but still in the for shadow. It means we can see it but it is not real. We can see in this literary works the spirit if colonization but nobody wants to say it is colonization because the colonization itself had spilt itself into many forms of life activities of the people in the world. It is believe then that colonization will be ling live forever in the form shadow, not real but exist.

C. Selected Short Stories

I have selected four shorts stories that I believe they can become a media to prove that the shadow of colonization especially on economic issues are still exist in the literary works. First, Waxing the Thing is written by Indian writer Gino Kamany. Second, Civil Peace is composed by Nigerian writer named Chinua Achebe. Third, Fiesta of The Fiesta of Damned is a short story that is written by Han Ong, a Phillipfino writes, and. Forth, The Management of Grief that is written by Bharati Mukaherjee. She is in Indian and educated in United Stated of America. Three of these short stories such as Waxing the Things, The Fiesta of Damned, and The management of Grief are taken from the collection of short stories in the book of Charlie Chan Is Dead 2: At Home in the World (An Anthology of Contemporary Asian American Fiction, edited by Jessica Hagedorn. About the book,  Debbie Lee Wesselmann gives her review on http:// www.amazon.com/ Charlie -Chan-Dead-Contemporary-Fiction-Revised/ dp/0142003905, that she said “Jessica Hagedorn has put together a mostly impressive collection of short stories and a few novel excerpts written by Asian Americans. From well-known names to lesser known talents, this anthology covers the wide terrain of both stylistic approaches and Asian cultures. Its writers can claim heritages from Vietnam, India, the Philippines, China, Taiwan, Japan, Cambodia, and Korea”. Most of these writers’ countries are colonized. The other short story, Civil Peace, is taken form book of Short Fiction: An Introductory Anthology, Second Edition edited by Gerald Lynch and David Rampton.

For this essay I select two short stories from India, one from Philippine, one from Nigeria. These countries are colonized by different colonizers. India and Nigeria were colonized for years by British and Philippine by Spanish more than three centuries. Colonizer countries never gave them sweet memories but left them traumatic history that always exists forever with various form and ‘taste’. Thus, the stories selected here are written in recent days, in this era, and also some of the writer are educated in the western countries, the colonizers, but we can still find the proves the colonization.

First, the story of Waxing The Thing and The Mangement of Grief. Waxing the Thing takes place in Bombai, India. As general understand, Bombai is according to wikipedia “Mumbai, formerly Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and the financial capital of India. With an estimated population of thirteen million, it is the second most populous city in the world. Along with the neighboring suburbs of Navi Mumbai and Thane, it forms, at nineteen million, the world’s fifth most populous metropolitan area. Mumbai lies on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbour. Mumbai’s port handles over half of India’s maritime cargo.” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Mumbai). Shortly it is said that Bombai is crowded cities as well a metropolitan area.

The story begins with the coming of main character “I” to Bombai. She is a village girl who comes to Bombai for looking for a job and then working in a beauty salon. That is the first time to her to come there and everything is strange as she said;

‘For me it’s all very strange, what goes on with these rich-rich city ladies, but I mind my own business. I am just a simple village girl. Everything about the city is strange for me, so what’s one thing more?” (Jessica Hagedorn 2004: 187)

Let us examine some implicit events from this quotation that later we relate it to Marxist theory. The phrase “my own business” means waxing is a business in Bombay because there are so many ladies here. But “For me it’s all very strange” shows that this business is only for the city people not for the villager because as villager she never see the business like that before. This is the concept of commoditization where everything can be commoditized including the human being themselves. It is a strange business for her but she do it because “Everything about the city is strange for me, so what’s one thing more?”. This show the reality of living in the city compare with living in the village. The people in the city do not care each other and they are free to do anything without caring other people. Just do your own business. In village, however, it will not happen because the tight of sense of togetherness is still tight. They care each other.

To give more fact of this reality of Indian, it is explained by Malathi Nidadavolu on her Urban Characters in Telugu Fiction of the Sixties and Seventies that there are “three life styles discernable in Telugu fiction corresponding to the three economic strata of society: namely, the rich, the middle class and the poor. This classification, according to economics, plays a more crucial role in cities than in villages; in fact, it has even superseded religion and caste to a remarkable degree. These latter two important aspects of Indian society are more conspicuous by their absence in novels and short stories in which they do not form the central theme. In general, the rich are portrayed as reflecting a pseudo-western culture which is developed out of misinterpretation of a foreign culture and through the operation of ill-informed sources. The middle class people are lured to cities by western education and employment opportunities but are into ready for changes in their traditional values. The poor unskilled laborers see promise of respectability and social mobility in cities”( Malathi Nidadavolu 2008). This is only an example of one of the society life of India that is reflected in the fiction.

It is also clearly depicted in the Waxing the Thing that the most important thing for the people who are living in the city like Bombai, a metropolitan city, is money. Everything is calculated base on money, money-oriented.

“ Why shouldn’t I? if they want to pay me better than at the salon, and on top of that, pay for my taxi here and there, then what do I care? …I am just a poor village girl, so what do I need to wax for? As though you have to be rich to do it”

The first consideration for her is “pay me better” than other like. Money, according to Marxist theory is called materialist, is very important for her for going here and there. This quotation also shows the class division of the society. The poor is different from the rich even in the waxing. The villagers are different from city people. The only measurement is money.

In correlation with colonialism idea, since Mrs. Malathi Nidadavolu said that “In general, the rich are portrayed as reflecting a pseudo-western culture which is developed out of misinterpretation of a foreign culture and through the operation of ill-informed sources. The middle class people are lured to cities by western education and employment opportunities but are into ready for changes in their traditional value” it is then I call it the shadow of colonization. It is not real colonization like centuries ago but it is just like the shadow, not real but can be seen clearly by our own eyes.

The story of Management of Grief by Bharati Mukherjee is also reflected the same thing event though in different form. the story of The Management of Grief stars with the chaos at main character named Shaila Bhave’s Toronto home. There are some strangers at that her house gathered together for legal advice, company, and tea. They are simultaneously listening to multiple radios and televisions to catch some news about the crash of Air India Flight 182. The plane is reported that Sikh terrorist had planted a bomb. Contextually, this story generated from the crash of Air India Flight 182 on June 12, 1985. All 329 passengers and crew members on board were killed when a bomb in the front luggage compartment exploded, hurtling the plane into the North Atlantic ocean, 110 miles southwest of Ireland’s coast. The flight was headed to New Delhi and Bombay and had departed from Toronto and Montreal.Investigations have suggested that the bomb was planted by a Canadian based Khalistani network devoted to their kinsmen’s historical struggle to secede from India. Khalistanis are a sect of Sikhs, one of the three major religious groups of India, along with Hindus and Muslims (http://www. bookrags. com/ study guide- managementgrief / hist.html).

In correlating with this topic, I do not focus on the main event that is most about terrorist bomb on the plane but to sub-events of Shaila’s six month after tragedy life and the other family that lost their family’s members in the crash. It is not easy for them to face the fact that they lost their beloved family together with various problems left. The big problems are for the widows whose husband becomes a victim of the plane crash or whoever the money earner for the family. The financial conflict is occurred. Take an example of a family that lost their children who always provide them money for life

“They have no paid their utility, out of fear and the inability to write a check. The telephone is gone; electricity and gas and water are soon to follow. They have told Judith their sons will provide. They are good boys, and they always earned and looked after their parents”

But off course their sons were the victims of the crash. The situation depicted in this is a little example of the reality as Marxist theory said as economic power includes social and political power. When the family lost their economic power, they then lost their power of life and at the same time will create the class division, the poor and the rich. In this story there some other examples that show how the economic conflict happens among the society caused by many factor, one of them is this accident. The terrorist bomb itself is a kind of colonization, a group to other one.

Second, the story of Civil Peace by Chinua Achebe and Fiesta of The Damned by Han Ong. After reading these two short stories I come to the conclusion that they are good depiction of colonisation with it economic conflicts. Civil Peace is a story about civil war in Nigeria. Jonathan Iwegbu is the main character of the story has just come to the end of the war. The war had ruined anything in the city. Fortunately, “happy survival!” was the great words he said to express good fortune that he did not become the victim of the war. I mean he was not killed by the war. It was happier when he found his wife and his four children were still with him too. To survive in that situation he had to earn money with any ways. He had old bicycle that he used as taxi. It was not bad then by giving taxi sevice with his bicycle he could make money within 2 weeks £150. Jonathan then traveled to Enugu, the capital city, and it was big surprise that his house was still standing although the structures were broken by the war. The house needed some repairs because the doors, window, roofs were missing. So Jonathan immediately collected available materials like wood, zinc, cardboard, and so on. He hired a carpenter to complete the work and soon moved his family back home.

It is simple the story about the war. It is known that war makes pain to anyone, children, mother, innocent civil, and event to the soldier that get involved in that war. There is no war that good advantage of war. The most common problem of the war, as seen in this story, is economic crisis. Look what happen to Jonathan’ family.

“What do you want from me? I am poor man. Everything I had went with this war. Why do you come to me? You know people who have money..”

This is the situation as the result of war. War creates colonization and economic crisis. The very basic of Marxist theory said that superstructure; social, political, ideological realities the superstructure is always based on economics. Economic power includes social and political power. It is proven that when economic power is less than any problems/crisis in the society will happen immediately. It also depicted in this story that at the end of the war, many robbers in the city. That night his house was visited by five robbers to ask his only twenty-pounds money. The depiction of Jonathan’s life is the clear example of economic issues of colonization.

Let us see the historical background of the story to prove that this story clearly the shadow of colonization. It is said that “Nigeria, a British colony, gained its independence in 1960. Each of Nigeria’s regions was the center of one of the major ethnic groups—the Muslim Hausa and Fulani in the north, the Christian Ibo in the southeast, and the Yoruba, who were Muslim or Christian, in the west. The new country’s first government was a parliamentary system, with each region represented in the federal government. The northern region, however, with its large population, soon dominated the entire country politically. Friction increased, particularly between the Hausa/Fulani and the Ibo in the southeast. In January 1966, an Ibo-dominated group of eastern army officers, hoping to rid the country of political corruption, led a coup that toppled the government”.(http: //www. bookrags.com/ studyguide-civilpeace/hist.html).

The story of The Fiesta of Damned is also showing the same thing in different context and side of life. The economic issues that is still shadowed by colonization shown by the following quotation

“Miss Aunor and Mr. Macapagal would be playing a mother and son caught in the news of Japanese-American conflict, the former an unwilling whore to Japs and the latter a messenger between the insurgent anti-Jap native forces and the American army who, through the course of the story, is caught and forces his beloved mother to trade her freedom for his life”

This is only a part of the story in the film that is being produced by Twentieth Century-Fox called The Fiesta of Damned. The film is taking pictures in the Philippine and staring by various actor and actress. Mainly the story is about film making together with its conflict on the field. But here I do not want to discuss the story but I just to show that actually this story cannot apart from the economic issues that also show the shadow of colonization. The story itself in fact, base on the quotation above, is depicting the relationship between Japan and Philippine and produced by American company. It can be dug more how the relationship between these countries. How Philippine and how American, it only film making, but more than it American shows his colonization’s way through this film production.

“Art was one thing, however, economic and accounting, another”

What is another? It is colonization. Colonization shadow is existing and standing among this ways, the ways that sometime is unconsciously realized by the colonized natives.

D. Selected Poetries

No

Title

Writer

Country

1

Practical Aim

Cyril Wong

Singapore

2

In My Mother’s Dream

Chin Woon Ping

Malaysia

3

Wanton With James

Boey Kim Cheng

Singapore

4

The Dump

Vivek Narayan

India

5

Filipineza

Bino A. Realuyo

Philippine

6

Scene: a Loom

Sarah Gambito

Philippine

7

Highgate Cemetery

Shanta Acharya

India

8

Wooden Table

Cecep Syamsul Hari

Indonesia

9

Sain Rosa, 1

Dorothea Rosa Herliany

Indonesia

10

The forest last day

Muahmmad Haji Saleh

Malaysia

These selected poetries are taken prom the book of Language for A New Centuries, Contemporary Poetry From The Middle East, Asia, and Beyond that is edited by Tina Chang, Nathalie Handal, and Ravi Shankar. Just like the short stories analyzed above, these poetry are also good reflection of colonization economic issues which is reflected through nature, social conflict, personal relation, dreams, etc. even though the main theme of these poetries are different each other, but most of them bring the voice of economic issues.

In Chin Woon Ping’s My Mother’s Dream for example, the main topic is about hopes of life. Through this poetry she explores her hops as well her “my mother” dream. Hence this poetry we can see the shadow of colonization.

“up damp walls, there are no rumors

of Japanese soldier advancing

for refuge on leech-deep jungles, no digging

for tapioca root, no tears when all that was hoarded

was Bana notes for smoky bonfire,

body does not split with pain as it evict”

Here is the issue of colonization but only its shadow. Japan soldiers are not in Malaysia any more. But when we rewind the memory to year ego, we can see how Japan came in Malaysia. The main Japanese attack force for the invasion of Malaya, Lieutenant General Tomoyuki Yamashita’s 25th Army, had sailed from Samah Harbour on Hainan Island on December 4, 1941. Additional ships carrying more troops joined the convoy from Saigon, French Indochina. On both the 6th and 7th of December Lockheed Hudson aircraft flown by No.1 Squadron RAAF, Kota Bharu, and No.8 Squadron RAAF, Kuantan, spotted and attempted to shadow these ships.(Bert Kossen (at al) 2008: http:// www. geocities.com / dutcheastindies/kota_bharu.html).

The economic issue on this poetry is also too clearly depicted. Let us underline the phrase ‘no digging for tapioca root’ as evidence. The other poetries are also issueing the same thing. Let me show some extracts of them.

Boey Kim Cheng’s Wanton With James

“Jackammer pangs of hunger stabbing

at mind, we drag our depleted bellies through

late-night Chinatown, sniffing out meals

fit for gods but going for a song, no longer

confident of weathering the night

on an afternoon’s meager meal”

Vivek Narayan, The Dump

“The dump is very sprawl it once preceded,

Distilling our dreams to grit. Mouth at every door,

Abandoned to kitchens, it trailed the radial roads

And signed the city’s nascent borders with its seed”

Bino A. Realuyo’s Filipineza

“My whole country cleans houses for food, so that.

……

My country to spend years of conversations with dirt”

Shanta Acharya’s Highgate Cemetery

“the voices of children from the playground across the school

Confirm the inscription on Karl Marx tomb:

Everyday our little world changes a little bit

Whether we like or not is quite irrelevant,

I imagine a dialogue between Marx and Krishna

It is easier I confess to alter myself than the world”

The other writers like Cecep Syamsul Hari, Dorothea Rosa Herliany, Sarah Gambito, and Muhammad Haji Saleh are also talking the economic issues with their own ways both explicitly and implicitly. Muhammada Haji Saleh fluently explores it by showing his fear to the deforestation. When the forest has been cut out, the world will finish and everything will be difficult. Illegal logging is world problems and Muhammad Haji Saleh shows his attention through this poetry. Illegal logging and the international trade in illegally logged timber is a major problem for many timber-producing countries in the developing world. It causes environmental damage, costs governments billions of dollars in lost revenue, promotes corruption, undermines the rule of law and good governance and funds armed conflict.(http://www.illegal-logging.info/index.php). Again this poetry is not only talking about the deforestation but more about economic problems created by this action. Economic reason is the main motif of deforestation.

E. Conclusion

After analyzing some selected short stories and poetries under the title The Shadow of Colonialism Economic Issues on Literary Works by applying Marxist theory, it can be concluded that;

  1. Economic issues are endless topic to discuss in any fields of study because it belongs to the society (social) problems.
  2. Literary work is one of a media to reflect the economic issues or social realities of the age.
  3. Literary works, even thought they are written in the recent era, is still shadowed by colonization in case of economy, politic, socicial reality, etc.
  4. Marxist theory has captured most of economic, social, political problem of the world.

R e f e r e n c e s.

Bookrags. 2008. Study Guide Management Grief. URL: http://www. bookrags.com/ study guide- managementgrief /hist.html

Bombai: URL : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Mumbai

British Empire: (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Empire).

Chang Tina & Nathalie Handal &Ravi Shankar. 2008. Language for A New Centuries, Contemporary Poetry From The Middle East, Asia, and Beyond. W.W Norton & Company. United State of America

Christopher F. Egan. 2008. Globalization and the Economic Impact. URL: http:// www.usoecd.org/documents/08-ambassador-metrowest-economic-forum.pdf.)

Darby, P. 1998. The Fiction of Imperialism: Reading Between International Relation and Postcolonialism. London. Cassell

Definition of Shadow: URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shadow.

Hyam, Ronald. 1976. Imperial Century 1815-1914, the study of Empire and Expansion.

Hagedorn, Jessica. 2004. Charlie Chan Is Dead 2: At Home in the World (An Anthology of Contemporary Asian American Fiction. Penguin Books. New York.

Illegal Logging info. 2008. URL: http://www.illegal-logging.info/index.php

Keat, Russell and John Urry. 1975. Social theory as science, quoted from the Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy.

Kossen, Bert. (at al). 2008: Seventy minutes before Pearl Harbor The landing at Kota Bharu, Malaya, on December 7th 1941. URL: http: // www. geocities.com / dutcheastindies / kota_bharu.html)

Political Economy: http://en. wikipedia.org/ wiki /Marxist# Marx_ and_Engels

Rampton, David. & Gerald Lynch. (ed). 2005. Short Fiction: An Introductory Anthology, Second Edition. Nelson. Canada

Wesselmann, Debbie Lee. 2008. Charlie Chan Dead Contemporary Fiction Revised: URL:http://www.amazon.com/Charlie-Chan-Dead-Contemporary-Fiction- Revised/ dp/0142003905

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The Hidden Messages of Confessions of an Old Boy

The Dato’ Hamid Advantures

kam-raslan-confessions-of-an-old-boy

A. Introduction

Reading Kam Raslan’s Confessions of an Old Boy; The Dato’ Hamid Advantures, the readers will produce hundreds questions. However, from hundreds ones, the simplest one and rapidly questioned by the readers is “who is Dato’ Hamid?”. This question then explores many things from the book. The answer will show the genre of the book as well. For example, if the answer is “Dato’ Hamid is an existed Malaysian”, the book must be categorized as an historical book of Malaysia. But if the answer is “he is the fictional character created by Kam Raslan”, the book must be a fiction. Therefore, it can be both that it is good to say that the book is a fiction that shows the historical background of Malaysia as Kam Raslan says “Shameless, exciting and funny, Dato’ Hamid’s life and adventures chart the financial, political and amorous relationships that have made Malaysia what it is today”(Raslan: book review)

Discussing Confessions of an Old Boy; The Dato’ Hamid Advantures is just like discussing the history of Malysia, at least one of Malaysian people. Whosoever read the book they will say so. It is said Dato’ Hamid was a civil servant of the Unku Abdul Rahman generation. He was the sort of person you rarely saw nowadays, a fine example of the anachronistic Malay. This generation, had groomed in the ways of the colonial British would be out of place not just in 21st century Malaysia, but in Britain too. And yet, Dato’ Hamid, in all his snobbishness and patronizing ways, is essentially a alaysian. Without people like him, our country would probably never exist at all. At least not like we know it now (Ted Mahsun: 2007). The author of the book, Kam Raslan, said;

I like to think Dato’ Hamid is very real (even though I made him up) and that he encapsulates a breed of person that many of us know and most of us can recognize. He is of the old breed that has been airbrushed out of our history, bu who would sooner quote Shakespeare than wave a kris … would be more a ease in a cocktail party than a kampong …”( Sharon Bakar : 2007)

By conforming “event thought I made him up”, Kam Raslan answers the big question of the readers who Dato’ Hamid is. It is clear that Dato’ Hamid is a fictional character who is created by the writer. Unfortunately, he is very real for the reader. The sense of historical knowledge has been very ‘trusted’ to neglect. Furthermore, the book makes the historical phenomenon split into fictional one.

In relation to this phenomenon, Dr. Noraini Md. Yusof and Ruzy Suliza Hashim, in their article under the title History into Fiction: Transformations of Two World in Discourse, in the book of Re-visioning Realities Through Literary Discourse, said that history that was narrated had been the construct of writer, and like stories, the text could be interpreted as cultural artifact that show the interplay of discourses and web of social meanings, especially that of the time and place in which text was written (Dr. Noraini Md. Yusof and Ruzy Suliza Hashim: 2007). Referring to this statement, to discuss the book of Confessions of an Old Boy; the Dato’ Hamid Adventures, it is unworkable without discussing the history of Malaysia.

a. History of British colonization of Malaya

To discuss the history of Malaysia briefly in this short essay is too risky because of its ‘beauty’ and complexity. Just to give a little view, let us see some important points of Malaya history. According to Wikipedia, Malaysia as a unified state had not existed until 1963. Previously, a set of colonies had had not been established by the United Kingdom from the late-18th century, and the western half of modern Malaysia had been composed of several separate kingdoms. This group of colonies had been known as British Malaya until its dissolution in 1946, when it had been reorganized as the Malayan Union. Due to widespread opposition, it had been reorganized again as the Federation of Malaya in 1948 and later gained independence on 31 August 1957 (wikipidia: this page was last modified on 2 November 2008)

Since Malaya was colonized by British, most of life aspect of Malyan was influenced by the British authority. By 1910 the pattern of British rule in the Malay lands was established. The Straits Settlements were a Crown Colony, ruled by a governor under the supervision of the Colonial Office in London. Their population was about half Chinese, but all residents, regardless of race, were British subjects. The first four states to accept British residents, Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang, were termed the Federated Malay States: while technically independent, they were placed under a Resident-General in 1895, making them British colonies in all but name (wikipidia:2008)

When Malaysia gained its independence on 31 August 1957, it was not altogether free from English power as it colonizer. As Zawiah Yahya said on book of Resisting Colonialist Discourse that the real British interest behind all these political maneuvers might have a lot to do with a country that had been rich in natural resources such as tin (Zawiah Yahya 2003: 58) It is equal with the theory of colonialism that is viewed by Brougham in British Colonial Theories 1570-1850 that ‘the commerce with the colonies was preferable to foreign trade because it partook of the nature of a “home trades”’ (Kalus E. Knorr 1968: 229).

b. Malaysian educational background

Besides, the most vexed issues of independent Malaysia were education and the disparity of economic power among the ethnic communities (wikipidia 2008). In relation to the book of Confessions of an Old Boy; the Dato’ Hamid Adventures, I would not talk about of economic discourses but more focus on educational one. The history of Malaysian education has been stepping long period. In a seminar presented by Professor Anna Christina Abdullah under the title Educational Development in Malaysia: Meeting the Challenges of National Integration clearly depicted the historical context of education of Malaysia as follow (Professor Anna Christina Abdullah: http://home.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/cice/87.pdf).

To see more detail the history of education in Malaysia Professor Anna Christina Abdullah added “Primitive and Feudal Period (35,000BCE-1786), the education during this period was typical of feudal societies. Only members of the royalty and nobility had the benefit of formal education that prepared them for ruling the masses. Education for the rest of society was largely of an informal nature involving the passing down of traditional life skills from generation to generation. However, the Islamic clergy established a small number of Qur’anic schools or pondok for the purpose of religious education” Professor Anna Christina Abdullah: http://home.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/cice/87. pdf).

As time run forward, the history of Malaysian education is better then and the native had their ‘own’ school when the Malay College Kuala Kangsar was once established. The establishment of this school is also one of the important pillars of Malaysian education history. Historically speaking, The Malay College Kuala Kangsar (Malay College, MCKK, MC or Kolet, Koleq) the Malay language, it is called Kolej Melayu Kuala Kangsar or formerly Maktab Melayu Kuala Kangsar as well the Dato’ Hamid’s former school is the oldest school in Malaysia. “The school was the brainchild of Mr R J Wilkinson, then Inspector of Schools for the Federated Malay States. In a letter to the Resident-General dated 24th February 1904 he wrote about “establishing at a suitable locality in the F.M.S., a special residential school for the education of Malays of good family and for the training of Malay boys for admission to certain branches of Government service”. (http://www.mckk.edu.my/information/history-of-malay-college. php:2008).

The existence of this school is not only for educating the native Malay but also as way to ‘fight’ with the existed English one. It is a original aim of MCKK as stated on the report of the school a year after the changing of its name from the Malay Residential School of Kuala Kangsar to the Malay College of Kuala Kangsar by the Sultan of Perak On Saturday, 11th December 1909. The report stated that “From this school the Government have great hopes that the sons of Malays of the Raja and higher class will be educated and trained on the lines of an English Public School and be fitted to take a share in the Government of their Country”.(ibid). it is a history to be remembered and vied as the time steps forward.

As the time keeps running from the past to the present (and forever), everything is also changing. The immortality is the changing itself. It might be a great fortune for whom who can be evidence of the time chaining as well the history of life both individually and globally. In the Confessions of an Old Boy; the Dato’ Hamid Adventures, Dato’ Hamid, the main character of the book has been living as one of the evidence of Malaysian history. He has been living with the changing of the time.

B. Dato’ Hamid and the Time Changing

Through this part I would like to view Dato’Hamid’s existence as the evidence of Malaysian history, at least Malaysian society along ago before the creating of Dato’ Hamid himself by Kam Raslan, the author of Confessions of an Old Boy; the Dato’ Hamid Adventures. As the story takes flashback form of the plot, Dato’ Hamid becomes an important image of the past. To discuss this point, it is more appropriate to apply one of Freudian concept that is Regression. Regression, according to wikipidia, is the Latin equivalent of regression means “return” or “withdrawal”; it also signifies a retreat or a return to a less-evolved state (http://www.answers.com/topic/regression). In other word, Dr. Shantini Phillai, in her lecturer slides on Psychoanalysis subject, Univeristy Kebangsaan Malaysia, said that Regression or the return of the repressed is reliving your past and returning to a former psychological state- carries one away from the present but normally results in the working out of repressed issues (Shanthini Phillai: 2008).

The book of Confessions of an Old Boy; the Dato’ Hamid Adventures is telling about an old civil servant that is an Old Boy. The event of his life is full with the past and it always become a baroether of his present life. He live in his present time, the time for memorizing anything he passed when he was young as he said in his A Letter to a Newspaper below;

“Unfortunately, everyone is so fixated with youth that we people with experience become ignored. I have seen everything” (Kam Raslan 2007: 1)

Just underline the sentence ‘I have seen everything’. This simple sentence is very meaningful since the writer of the book italicizes the word “everything”. At leas there are two hidden meanings of this sentence. First, Dato’ Hamid wants to declare that he is an old man. In Malayan society, the old man means knowing anything because he/she has been living in the worl for long time. In Malay language he/she usually says “sudah terlebih dahulu makan garam” (I have been eating salt before you born). Second, this sentence is also to show that Dato’ Hamid is an educated people with many experiences and knowledge. So do not worry because he knows anything that you want to know. Just ask him. He show his personal as well as psychological position in this book.

a. Psychological Position

The rich experiences he has actually because he is a link of generation. In the first short story in this book, it is so clear depicted the relationship between Dato Hamid (his own generation) and the past generation (my grand-father) and his after-him-generation (my grand-son). This link is actually also a way of showing Dato’ Hamid psychological position as well his sentiment toward these generations. It is drawn as follow;

The Old Boy

Dato’ Hamid

Grand Father

Grandson

Young The Old Boy

Ö Long hair

Ö Magician power control

Ö British minded

Ö Need and tidy

Ö Colored Long hair

Ö Ring on the nose

Ö Computer

Ö DJ Screw

Ö Education, The Eton of the East

Ö Merdeka Business

Ö May 13th

Ö Sophisticated cultural complexity

Based on this diagram, psychologically, Dato’ Hamid shows his different sentiment toward these generations, his own generation, grand father’s, and grandson’s. They can be criticized as a media to reveal the Dato’ Hamid’s position, how Dato’ Hamid sees the generations. Firstly, Dato Hamid and his grand father, he said;

“My great-grandfather had long hair but then, he was quite mad and could kill an entire community with an egg and a glass of water.( Kam Raslan 2007:3)

“My great-grandfather” here means Malaysia country. Through this sentence Dato’ Hamid show his great grand father as a great people. You cannot imagine they could kill people only using an egg and a glass of water. They were fluently using a magic power in their time. Here Dato’ Hamid is rightfully proud of his ancestor. Thus, still in the same paragraph he neglects the power of English, as he said;

“If there is one thing that the British taught us it was how to drink whisky – I mean, it was that a man should look neat and tidy.( 3)

The British gave them nothing. It is why then Dato’ Hamid is very proud of his people. Event The British taught them the negative way of life like drinking of whisky. As we know that whisky is forbidden to drink by Moslems as Malayan are.

Different form this generation, his own generation is more talking about nation problem and complexity. There same points that Dato’ Hamid depicts his generation such as education, movement, races, and culture. He is still proud of his generation with various successes wealth experiences.

“When I was a young ADO in Kuala Kangsar, I was talking to a group of Old Boys, chaps from MCKK or the Malay College Kuala Kangsar—also known as the Eton of the East . .. I said to them, “I say you fellows, what do you think about this Merdeka business?” You see, we were all dreadfully concerned about the future of our nation and its Independence even then.

I’ve a wealth of experience and understanding that should be tapped… My generation is more in touch with all the various races that make up Malaya. I mean Malaysia” (2)

From this quotation, it can be examined that Dato’ Hamid respects his past very much. He has been doing many things. He has many friends when he was schooling in the Malay College Kuala Kangsar and it is why then MCKK become one of ‘historical and fictional’ important setting of this book. It is also by presenting this quotation, Dato’ Hamid and his generation show their existence in the independence of Malaysia and also the in “touch with all various races that make up Malaya”

Different from these two generations, Dato’ Hamid is disappointed when he find the generation of his grandson’s one. He is questioning some changes that are different form his one.

“But what I really want to talk to you about is the youth of today. Young people are simply shocking and the worst thing about them is their hair. Why would a man need to have long hair? Answer: If he’s a girl. Only ladies should have long hair. Young ladies are entitled, nay, encouraged to enhance their femininity but men should be, well, manly”(2)

It is very reasonable why he keep questioning the young generation with their weir style and dress. If long time a go only people who had magic power (black magic) who had long hair, but now most of Malay people have it. It means the changing of people act (young generation) is at the same time the changing of Malay culture. This reason that make Dato’ Hamid disappointed. His young generation then is “trying to look like a circus pig,” (3)

However, Dato’ Hamid is not altogether taking general bad conclusion on the generation, he still respect the way of young generation to honor the old people. This way is what Dato’ Hamid hopes very much toward the generation. Let have look the follow quotation;

“I like The Grandson and he always come to see me as soon as he comes back from Los Angeles. I suppose these are the kind of Malayans we need. I mean Malaysians” (3)

In conclusion, psychologically, Dato’ Hamid, as the representation of Malayan or Malysian, has sown his sentiment to the generations he sees by his own eyes. He is proud of his ancient generation as well as his own one. But he is disappointed by the young generation that has been influenced by western culture such as long hair, rings on nose, colored hair, etc. The only thing he like from the young generation is that they still keep honor to the old people like his grandson does to him. This hope is also shows his ideological position.

b. Ideological Position

Discussing about ideology, especially relating to the book of Confessions of an Old Boy; the Dato’ Hamid Adventures, it is just like talking about The East and The West. More and less it is talking about to conquer or being conquered, to colonize or being colonized, the weak and the power, the big and the small, the rich and the poor, the educated (well developed) and the uneducated (primitive), and so on. In this part I am going to discuss the position of Dato’ Hamid. Where does Dato, Hamid belong to?

Dato’ Hamid is a retired civil servant who, in the past of his life, visited many countries in the west such as Monte Carlo, Los Angeles, Algiers, London etc. visiting many countries in Europe and or even marring European girl do not change him into European. He rapidly said in any places that he is a Malayan or Malaysian. He is very proud of being Malaysian.

“Although I’m retired now I still think about Malaysia and could be of invaluable service to the nation”(1).

There is not a corner of this planet that has not been visited by one of The Boy, some of whom never came back but all of whom will be Malay till their dying breath. I should know, I was so very nearly one of them. But, that what it was, back then, to be Malaya”(25)

Refers to the history of Malaya, being a Malaysian Dato’ Hamid must be categorized as a native of colonizer. He declares it clearly in the following quotation.

“We worked with British and for the British. We had been taught by them and then were abandoned by them when the Japanese came. We had every twentieth-century experience one can possibly imagine. We were colonized but were also the leader” (25).

The sentence “We were colonized but were also the leader” is showing Dato’ Hamid’s position. At least from this sentence it is known that he was colonized but also a leader. It is what Kam Raslan said in the expose of the book. He exposed about Dato’ Hamid that “he was educated by the British to be a civil servant and he believed that civil service was the only job with honour and purpose. Times have changed. But Dato’ Hamid is immensely lazy, unambitious and likes expensive things. Maybe some things remain the same. His generation is Anglicized but not Anglophile, although they do enjoy shopping in London” (Kam Rasalan: http://www.kamraslan.com/expose.htm).

C. Eurocentrism and Hegemony.

Since the story is about Dato’ Hamid’s Adventure to various countries in Europe, the sense of Europe feels so hard, and then we call it Eurocentrism. According to wikipidia online encyclopedia, ”Eurocentrism is the practice of viewing the world from a European perspective, with an implied belief, either consciously or subconsciously, in the preeminence of European (and, more generally, of Western) culture” (http: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eurocentrism) . It seems that everything goes to Euro. Thus, at the same time, the hegemony is revealed in the book. Hegemony, according to wiki pidia online encyclopedia, “is a concept that has been used to describe and explain the dominance of one social group over another, such that the ruling group or hegemon acquires some degree of consent from the subordinate, as opposed to dominance purely by force. It is used broadly to mean any kind of dominance, and narrowly to refer to specifically cultural and non-military dominance, as opposed to the related notions of empire and suzerainty”.(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hegemony). Consciously or unconsciously these two terms have been inserted to the text by the writer.

Dato’ Hamid and his wife are good representation of this discussion. Dato’ hamid is the representation of Malaysian while his wife is representation of European. Through these characters we can see how the ideology comes out. Some times they come to different point of view to see their own countries.

“ Well I’m from Europe and I can tell you it’s boring. Boring, old and gray.” The water pipes started gurgling in agreement. “I want to see Malaya. I want to see the sunlight and palm trees, endless empty beach and dense jungle lair of ligers and elephants that is your home.” A thick, vile ooze erupted from the kitchen sink. “Let’s get away from here, Hamid. I hate this place”. (32)

For the European point of view Malaya is an exotic country with its natural resources. How they want very much to come and see this country. Related to the history of Malay colonialism, one of the reasons of British coming to Malaya was to visit its beauty as well as trading the natural resources, colonies as sources of raw materials. Klaus E. Knorr in his British Colonial Theories 1570-1850 said “the expectation of finding new resources of supply in the colonies must be regarded as the most potent of all arguments offered in favor of English Colonization” ( Klause E. Korr 50).

It is different from his wife point of view, Hamid likes visiting Europe countries. He seems want to search many things in European countries;

“It’s just that. I’m in Europe now and I’d like to see more of it before I go back… I am from Malaya. I know Malaya and I wan to experience Europe”(32)

“…I want to see more pf the world. You have to remember that Malaya brings me back bad memories for me. I lived through the war” (37)

Visiting many European countries makes him wealth experiences of European culture, way of thinking, or even he marry the European girl. Throughout the book it is known that implicitly Dato’ Hamid travel to Europe is also away to learn more abut them. He went to England for his study but he did not finish it well. He himself actually is traumatic with British colonial to Malay as he said “Malaya brings me back bad memories for me”. In other word, he went to Europe just to see by his own eyes how the countries that he knew on the war time in Malaya.

Since European countries are the colonizer, Dato’ Hamid is trying to again it by going there and even married a European girl. Marrying for Dato’ Hamid is not only to establish new family but he has hidden mission that is to fight with the colonizer.

“She had married me because she thought I was the Mystical Orient and I had married her because she was Europe-both of us wanting to escape through a colonialism by marriage” (35)

For this point, by married each other they can get away from the colonialism context. Unfortunately, Dato’ Hamid unconsciously forget that The Wife married him because she wanted to go to Malaya, to ‘colonize’ him. In Dato’ hamid mind by marrying her it can be equal position with European, et least his own wife. However, as Malayan, the native of colonizer, Dato’ Hamid usually is dominated by his own wife, the European.

“what a terrible things had European done to her? She grew in stature before me – I was frightened of her, I was disgusted by her and I was in awe. I wanted her to disappear because she had revealed herself to me. She was stronger tah me and it made me hate myself. There was nothing I could do and she just slept” (49)

Beside to reveal the European view of Malayan, that from this quotation it shows that Malayan is a weak people event comparing with European woman, this quotation shows the domination or what we call it hegemony. In some event in the book, Dato’ Hamid is dominated by his beloved wife.

The ideology of hegemony does not happen only on the personal affair such as Dato’ Hamid and his wife, but also in a big scale that is nation level.

“I know but I think I’ve been cut out of loop. You see, this is very difficult, Hamid, the London branch arranged for the purchase of huge amount of palm oil to be bought in Malaysia and shipped to Rotterdam”

This quotation shows that by baying huge palm oil in Malaysia, England will dominate the plantation. It is a kind of new colonialism that is colonizing the ‘weak’ countries by using economic power. It is known that “british have the power and the will to exercise that power but also the absolute right to use it (because civilization was centred on them). The ideology had a lot to do with how the British then conceived themselves, their imperial enterprise and the people they colonized (Zawiah Yahya 2003: 51)

Therefore, realizing about European image of Malaya that is Malaya has beautiful (exotic places) but the people (like Dato’ Hamid) is weak and easy to dominate, Dato’ Hamid tries to again it by searching the equality. Unfortunately it is not easy because being a Malayan is being colonized. Thus, for this situation Dato’ Hamid keeps his big dream of a great nation.

“well, the Malays are still a feydal people” I said, looking to George for confirmation of my assertion and he nodded in agreement. “But whatever the ifs and the buts, it doesn’t deny that we Malayans had a dream, it might have been a fantasy, but we had curiosity for the world and ambition for our country. We had an idealism that coursed through the veins of school teachers, doctors, lawyers, and The Ministry. Our simple work was infused with a sense of being part of greater mission – a mission not only to create a new nation but a new kind of nation. But somewhere along the way that passion died” (255)

This is the great dream of colonized and feudal country, the dream of Dato’ Hamid.

D. Conclution

Reading the book of Confessions of an Old Boy; the Dato’ Hamid Adventures as well to analyze it, it is concluded that;

1. The book of Confessions of an Old Boy; the Dato’ Hamid Adventures is an fiction that is taken from works of history. The text could be interpreted as cultural artifact that show the interplay of discourses and web of social meanings, especially that of the time and place in which text was written (Dr. Noraini Md. Yusof and Ruzy Suliza Hashim: 2007)

2. Psychologically, Dato’ Hamid has different sentiment toward the generation of Malyasia. He is proud of his ancient and his own generation, but disappointed with the grandson generation with some reasons. But he still proud of young generation who still honors the older people.

3. Malaysia or Malaya is an exotic country in the view of European people (Euro centrism). It is one of the reason of the coming of europen colonizer to Malay. Visiting many European countries is a way to gain the equality by educating himself and earning wealth experiences. Unfortunately it needs more time and various ways to change the image

4. The hegemony is still happening in various form for Malayan. From the personal to the national one. Thus, Malaysian keep their dream to release themselves from the colonialism in any form.

R e f e r e n c e s

Bakar Sharon. 2007. The Bringing to Book of Dato’ Hamid. URL: http://thebookaholic. blogspot.com/2007/05/bringing-to-book-of-dato-hamid.html

Hashim, Ruzy Suliza (eds). 2007. Re-visioning Realities Through Literary Discourse. Selangor Darul Ehsan. Commercial Book Binders Sdn. Bhd.

Knorr, Klause E. 1968. British Colonial Theories 1570-1850. Canada. University of Toronto Press

Mahsun Ted. 2007. REVIEW: Confessions of an Old Boy by Kam Raslan. URL: http://tedmahsun.blogspot.com/2007/05/review-confessions-of-old-boy-by-kam.html

Raslan Kam. 2007. Confessions of an Old Boy; the Dato’ Hamid Adventures. Malaysia. Marshall Cavendish.

Sejarah Malaysia. URL:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaysia

Yahya Zawiyah. 2003. Resisting Colonialist Discourse. Secand edition. Bangi. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Professor Anna Christina Abdullah: http://home.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/cice/87.pdf).

Wikipidia. http://www.answers.com/topic/regression

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A Critical Review on Book of

Re-visioning Realities Through Literary Discourseukm

A. Introduction

The book of Re-visioning Realities through Literary Discourse is a collection of some articles written by some scholars of National University of Malaysia (UKM). The articles are exploring various topics of literary works together with its rich theoris. The literary works discussed in this book come from some countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia, and Philippine. These countries off course have rich literary works since they have various cultures, races, customs, history, and so on where the literary works ‘grow up’. The prosperity of this literary works has been discussed interestingly by the writers in this book.

Besides Malaysia, the writers of the book (the contributors) also come from other various countries such as Iran, Philippine, Amman, and Japan. Most of them have background of English language and literature or at least dealing with social and humanities studies and research. They earned master and philosophy of doctor from various universities both in Asia and Europe. Since most of them are lecturer or teacher of English, it is no doubt that they have produces many academic production on literary subject matter in English in order to enrich this book.

Under the title Re-visioning Realities through Literary Discourse, the book give important contribution to literary work studies. It is said that “in literary practice, re-visioning involve the act of “entering an old text from a new critical direction” which will then fracture costumes, traditions, and values held within the context of re-visioning and rewriting”. The old texts will become ‘dead’ production in the bookshelf of library if they are not reread and re-criticized bye the recent scholars. Thus, this book gives a good practice how to make the old text become alive in a line with the current issue as well as post-colonial issues.

Therefore, to review the discussion of re-visioning that is depicted in this book through the articles will become main pint of this writing. It is to study how the texts are presented. To make it focus, relating to my subject of study, Literatures from Postcolonial Countries, for this critical review, I only give serious attention on the issues of Gender, Diaspora, and Repositioning.

B. Genre

Gander issue is endless topic in any writing especially in literary works. It is explored together with its rich problems and complexity. In the book of Re-visioning Realities through Literary Discourse, I found at least three texts that are reflecting gender issues such Novel Paradigm: Reimagining Women’s Identity in Indonesian and Philippine Women’s Writings by Hope S. Yu, “Cracking” the Nationalist Discourse: Women’s Narratives of Partition by Siti Nuraishah Ahamd, and Breaching Taboo: Self-Inscription, Memory and Truth in Women’s Personal Narratives by Ruzy Suliza Hashim. For these texts, gander especially women, have been positioned on their different rule and faction both positively and negatively.

First, Hope S. Yu’s text is exploring women’s place in the society of Indonesia and Philippine. Even though they are different country and culture but they position the women in the same situation as they were ever colonized. The women’s place in the society has been captured by the writer, Hope S. Yu, through Lina Espina-Moore’s Lani! Lani! (1982), Hilda Montaire’s Miraflor (1968), and NH Dini’s Jalan Bandungan (1989). The place of the women especially in the colonial and post colonial era always inferior compare with men. This inferiority is very difficult to articulate directly in the real society. There are so many obstacles for them to voice their ‘destiny’ like men’s dominance and culture or tradition. To meet these obstacles, therefore, they have to find any ways such as through the literary works, novels.

The novel then becomes a mean to voice their struggle since it “deal(s) with the issue of patriarchy and how women negotiate space in their search for identity. The impact of the class issue on their empowerment as well as the contribution in women’s choices reveals the difficulties that underlie their negotiation with the conflicting pulls of tradition and modernity” (Ruzi Suliza Hakim (ed) at al: 61)

The tradition becomes most complex problem in women’s struggle. Yu has presented this issue briefly by analyzing the novels of Lina Espina-Moore’s Lani! Lani! (1982), Hilda Montaire’s Miraflor (1968), and NH Dini’s Jalan Bandungan (1989). For example, in the novel of Lani! Lani! Is depicted that “Benita, Perlita, and Lani, in an assortment of ways, mirrors the main concern in Moore’s fiction of women’s entrapment by family and society within practice that nevertheless can be seen as systematic in Philippine culture”(71). It also happened in Indonesian culture that women “(Mur’s) problem, although set in another social and cultural environment, still involves the same area of male-dominated social system”(75)

Women form time to time keep fighting to empower themselves in order to gain the equalities, at least without oppression from social and culture. However, as sometimes the struggle is not easy as ‘turn up side down the palm’, they have been fighting for their identity for long time. Although it has not finished yet, through the novel of Lina Espina-Moore’s Lani! Lani! (1982), Hilda Montaire’s Miraflor (1968), and NH Dini’s Jalan Bandungan (1989) the writers, as Yu explained it briefly, “create an awareness of women’s issue, positing new modes of thinking, redescribing paradigms so that social change can become a reality”(3).

Second, the text under the title “Cracking” the Nationalist Discourse: Women’s Narratives of Partition written by Siti Nuraishah Ahamad is discussing the women’ issues on national level. Again women had/have to struggle as that “whether real or imaged, women have always been crucial in the construction of a narrative if nation”(81). Through this text Siti Nuraishah Ahamad is depicting the gender issues by analyzing both fictional work that is novel by Bapsi Sidhwa (Pakistani) entitled Craking India (1991), and the non-fictional one of Urvashi Butala’s The other side of silence: Voices from the Partition of India (2008).

According to Siti that in the contest of India’s Partition, the violence experienced by women had not end with rape, mutilation, abduction, and other forms of sexualized aggression. Once again, women had played a crucial part in India and Pakistan’s struggle to establish themselves as sovereign state. (84). It is the same with the novel of Cracking India which represented the Hindu, Muslim or Sikh experience. Thus, “the novel come from a position of many-layered minority; gender (female), ethnic and religious (Parsee), political (colonized), and social (the servant class)”(86). From this level actually the struggle of the women’s empowerment is generated including the feminist writer.

Therefore, it is clearly depicted by the writer that female writers have been fighting with their pen to voice their identity which is for long time have been imaging a inferior level with all of its weakness. Consequently, Siti’s analysis on these writings has shown that “the nation re-imaging and re-casting of women in roles and spaces it deems appropriate do not necessarily mean equality and self-fulfillment for its female citizen” (81). However, “the fallen woman” Butalia and Sidhwa try in their own ways, to give voice to, vindicates the observation mane by many feminist scholars (for example, Yuval-Davis and Anthias, 1989; Boehmer, 1992; Ranchod-Nilson and Tetreault, 2000) of the necessity of representations and reconstructions of femininity to national project” (88)

In conclusion, the texts analyzed by Siti in this part have successfully reflected the gander issues. It is discussed briefly. She concludes on the last paragraph of her text brilliantly with sentences; “it is on such limited conception of femininity that patriarchal nationalism thrives, the consolidation of which serves to strengthen already unequal gender relation within the nation” (88-89). Finally, women experience exposes the realities of women’s contribution to national-building. Women have articulated their voice.

Third, the last text of the book that I believe as a good reflection of gender issue is text with the title Breaching Taboo: Self-Inscription, Memory and Truth in Women’s Personal Narratives composed by Ruzy Suliza Hashim. It is about Malaysian women’s struggle their identity and values by analyzing women’s personal narrative in form of autobiography and memoirs. This is very interesting because these texts are talking about the women themselves by “I” as the main characters. So since “I” is important character in each writings, it means that women show their ‘power’ by their pen and about their self. But still “all four memoirs emphasizes the patriarchal domination in our society (Malaysia), and these women negotiate their space and a place with great difficulty” (112).

To make this text clearly depicted, the writer, Ruzy Suliza Hashim, divided it into some important subtitles such as vulnerability of gender, identity, and female agency. All of these subtitles record the women’s spirit of personal struggle under their responsibility. Let us take a simple example, memoir of Khatijah Sidek that talks about the vulnerability of her gender which come to light and the ways in which she soldiers and despite setback. Ruzy discusses this issue briefly by presenting the detail of Khatijah’s life as well as her marriage through her memoir. This discussion shows extraordinary female agency. The same problems with different context also happen to other text.

Finally, in short, it is concluded that “all four texts memory illuminate the ways in which the memoirists revisit painful or significant moments in their lives which involve a degree of difficulty and struggle in their grasping of self and how they communicate it. An overall gender view, the book of Re-visioning Realities through Literary Discourse, has at least tree texts that have discussed gender issue well. It is revealed that women with their various ways have been doing many things to voice their identity as well the equality in the society. Their struggle are recorded in the texts both fiction and non-fiction. They wrote/write for words. “Words, as Ruzi quotes Nawal El Sadaawi’s sentence, should not seek to please, to hide the wounds in our bodies, or the shameful moments in our live. They may hurt, give us pain, but they can also provoke us to question what we have accepted for thousands of years” (123)

C. Diaspora and Multiculturalism

The issue of Diaspora and Multiculturalism in the book of Re-visioning Realities through Literary Discourse is reflected in the text of “Worlds in Conflict: Locating ‘the inappropriate Other’ in Multicultural Literature of Malaysia” written by Rainah Mydin, and “Transcultural Experiences and the Sense of Self in London Does not Belong to Me” by Subarna Sivapalan. The basic understanding of Diaspora is, according to Robin Cohen, signified a collective trauma, banishment, and where one dreamed of home but lived in exile. …all diasporic communities settled outside their natal (or imagined natal) territories, acknowledge that “the old country” – a notion often buried deep in language, religion, custom or folklore- always has some claim on their loyalty or emotions (Robin Cohen, Global Diasporas 1997, ix). While Stuart Hall states Multiculturalism is “The term refers to a variety of strategies for dealing with the cultural diversity and social heterogeneity of modern societies …where an unspoken social and cultural homogeneity cannot be assumed to provide an implicit consensual horizon of action, practice, policy or interpretation, but where nevertheless there is a determination to build a common and, if possible, a just life together.” Refer to these concepts; it will be easy to see how the issue of Diaspora and Multiculturalism reflected in the book.

First, The text of “Worlds in Conflict: Locating ‘the inappropriate Other’ in Multicultural Literature of Malaysia” written by Rainah Mydin reflects the issue of multiculturalism in Malaysia. Raihanah explores the issue of identity construction in a multi-cultural landscape as seen in Malaysian literature. The basic feature of multiculturalism country is dealing with cultural diversity and social heterogeneity of modern societies. The problems then is that how the member of the this hegeterogent society living together with many differences from the color of skin (races) to the region and belief/faith. Many people are not ready to live this condition as Rainhana said that “races consciousness or communalism can in fact hinder an individual’s journey into selfhood” (90). In this point Raihanah through the text of “Worlds in Conflict: Locating ‘the inappropriate Other’ in Multicultural Literature of Malaysia” discusses more focus on conceptual of the two main component of society, the community and individual.

To do so, Raihanah uses literary works by two prominent Malaysian novelists, namely, Lloyd Fernando with his “Green is the Color” and KS Maniam with his “Between Lives”. It is revealed that the need and right of individuals must be given to meet the communal need and expectation. The ‘individualism’ is reflected through the characters of the novel. Raihanah discuses them (most of the main characters of the novel) well like Sara and Dahlan as an example. They, as Malaysian people who are exposed to western culture since they study in US and UK, are considered to have transgressed communal boundaries through their life choices. She mentioned clearly that “these characters’ sense of “individualism” is constantly challenged by society that has from the start recognized their identity solely based on their race” (95).

To put it briefly, the novels that are discussed by Raihana have good reflection of multiculturalism issues. Raihana concludes her writing that “Maniam’s writing, unlike Fernando’s, indicates strong support for cultural attachment as it gives the individual an unbreakable link with her community and a clearer sense of self. But Maniam does hint at the need for an on-going dialogue between both parties in order to promote mutual acceptance and tolerance, instead of one sided dominance or marginalization”. (105)

Second, the text of “Transcultural Experiences and the Sense of Self in London Does not Belong to Me” written by Subarna Sivapalan is also good representation of Diaspora and multiculturalism. Subarna is using the term of trans-cultural to views the post colonial issues of multiculturalism. It is known that “the trans-acculturation is also a term which is used in post-colonial theory to refer to the manner in which subordinated of marginalized groups select and invent from materials transmitted to them by a dominant culture.” (125). Thus, Subarna uses a multi-dimensional approach based on social identity, psycho-analytical and post-colonial theory. She also supports her analysis with various terms and definition. By using this theory Subarna then meets the brilliant descriptions of the subject matter.

Subarna analyzes Lee Kok Liang’s novel with the title London does not Belong to Me which is one of post colonial Malaysian novel that reflects the issues of trans-cultural in post-colonial individual. The analysis comes to the study of how the post-colonial individual’s search for identity and sense of self. The searching of identity and sense of self become main problem in trans-culturation as well multiculturalism. In London does not Belong to Me she clearly depicts three stage of protagonist’s trans-cultural experiences such as the early stage, the middle stages, and the final stage.

In short, the stages can be depicted that “in the first stage, the protagonist goes through a sense of confusion. Confusion sets in because the protagonist finds it difficult adapt to the culture and norms of British society. This confusion is seen in terms of the cultural, racial, gender and sexual practices of the British. In the second stages, the protagonist then begin to realize that trans-cultural experiences can help him with his negotiation of identity and sense of self. The protagonist copies norms of the host country, particularly the sexual norms. And the third stage represents the period before the protagonist returns home to Malaya. In this stage, the protagonist’s identity and sense of self goes through a process of redefinition and integration.” (131-132).

These stages actually are in line with the common features of Diaspora by Robin Cohen

1. Dispersal from an original homeland, often traumatically, to two or more foreign regions;

2. alternatively, the expansion from a homeland in search of work, in pursuit of trade or to further colonial ambitions;

3. a collective memory and myth about the homeland, including its location, history and achievements

4. an idealization of the putative ancestral home and a collective commitment to its maintenance, restoration, safety and prosperity, even to its creation;

5. the development of a return movement that gains collective approbation;

6. a strong ethnic group consciousness sustained over a long time and based on a sense of distinctiveness, a common history and the belief in a common fate;

7. a troubled relationship with host societies, suggesting a lack of acceptance at the least or the possibility that another calamity might befall the group;

8. a sense of empathy and solidarity with co-ethnic members in other countries of settlement; and

9. the possibility of a distinctive creative, enriching life in host countries with a tolerance for pluralism

(Robin Cohen1997: 26)

In conclusion, Subarna through the novel of London does not Belong to Me has revealed a good reflection of the struggle of the post-colonial individual (the protagonist) in his search for identity and sense of self. She concluded that “Lee Kok Liang highlights the problems of the Malaysian immigration of coming to terms with identity and sense of self in Malaya by creating a substitute by corresponding situation. This analysis has helped shed some light upon the problematic of the post-colonial identity and sense of self.” (138)

D. Repositioning
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A. Repositioning

The text of Versus Exclusion: The Political Dynamics Between The National’ and the ‘International’ in Contemporary Philippine Literary History that is written by Bienvenido Lumbera is one of the Repositioning reflection. By telling the reader the history of his country, Bienvenido is showing the existence of the colonizer in his country especially reflected in literature. As he said that “in Philippines, it has simply revived the tension between the ‘nationalist’ and ‘colonial’ in the discourse on development of a distinct identity for Philippine Literature” (139)

Gaining the independence from the colonizer is not easy but more difficult is how to release from the ‘bad’ spirit of colonization itself. The colonizer, as it colonized the native both physically and mentally. The dangerous one is mentally colonization that is the native lost their identity. The colonizer had changed the natives’ identity with their one. So when the independence was won the best thing to do is recovering the country mentally by repositioning the spirit of the ‘nationalist’. It is what happen to Philippine, which is “during the initial years of U.S colonial rule, national identity, however, was a concept that remained to be clarified… the history was to prove that the early product of the public school system were enough to indoctrinate young Filipinos in “the American Way of Life” ”(140). That is depiction the history of Philippine-American relations since 1898 and the persistence of the impact of the colonial experience on the ‘writers’ collective conscious up to the present. Thereafter, the Filipino people as a nation knew where their interest lay an it was not where ‘colonial’ power exerted its hegemony.

In the concept of colonization is that the colonizer ruined the native by grouped them into various label and level like ethnic ranks such as, in Philippine, Igorots, Manobos, and Muslim that make the native inferior compare with the colonizer. This point then is coming into the problem of culture. Hence, Bienvenido writes more sharp that “at the early historical stage (Philippine), ‘exclusion’ was already being set up as a determining principle in clarifying the issue of identity. Carried over to the realm of culture, the principle was to occasion a split in consciousness of what ‘Filipino’ culture was.(140)

A culture seems a nice and enjoys ‘game’ for the colonizer. Bienvenido discusses this point sequentially. But culture itself is not as ease as to define in the reality of society. He said that “on the one hand, cultural expression asserts itself as ‘national’, when it uses the ingenious tradition; as this may have been modified by the history of the people, as the base for poetry, music, theatre and fiction. On the other, cultural expression is deemed ‘colonial’ when its bse comes from an outside culture, principally that of colonizers, bearing their hegemonic motivation and their racist assumption. (140). To overcome this problem is by being aware that the colonizer had been ruing their culture. They must distinguish by recognizing their culture including literary works whether their work or the production of colonial or at least colonial idea. They must product their own works rapidly. They also must face it by repositioning what actually had been being changing by the colonizer. One of the efforts is to reposition the idea and the spirit of colonialism in the work of literature.

The Filipino artists must change their designation of culture from the spirit of colonized spirit to their own real one, at least the process. Bienvenido, historically, gives the examples of the writes. He writes that “Rizal and other (writers) from the Propaganda Movement of 1980s had by example passed on to vernacular writing the theory that a writer writes for no other reason than the social and political needs of his time. Villa and his advocacy for art deliberately eschewed any social and political links to the life of the community broke off from a critical tradition hallowed by revolution of 1896” (1942)

To conclude, Bienvenido underlines that “this paper (Versus Exclusion: The Political Dynamics Between The National’ and the ‘International’ in Contemporary Philippine Literary History) had intended to demonstrate that a significant aspect of the growth of Philippine Literature stems from efforts by writers to avoid exclusion from literary developments outside of the Philippine and in reverse, from impulse to project a national image through works that are identifiably indigenous in subject matter and form”. (148) this is very important to note that this writing is sprit of repositioning.

B. Conclusion

After reviewing the book of Re-visioning Realities through Literary Discourse, it could be concluded that:

1. The book consists of various writing as well as various writer which is rich of knowledge of literary studies. Text ever dies and becomes alive forever on the hand of the scholars as shown in this book.

2. I found 3 texts that are reflection of gender issues such as Novel Paradigm: Reimagining Women’s Identity in Indonesian and Philippine Women’s Writings by Hope S. Yu, “Cracking” the Nationalist Discourse: Women’s Narratives of Partition by Siti Nuraishah Ahamd, and Breaching Taboo: Self-Inscription, Memory and Truth in Women’s Personal Narratives by Ruzy Suliza Hashim.

3. I found 2 text that reflect the Diaspora issues that are “Worlds in Conflict: Locating ‘the inappropriate Other’ in Multicultural Literature of Malaysia” written by Rainah Mydin, and “Transcultural Experiences and the Sense of Self in London Does not Belong to Me” by Subarna Sivapalan.

4. I fund one text that is reflecting the issue of Repositioning. The title of the text is Versus Exclusion: The Political Dynamics Between The National’ and the ‘International’ in Contemporary Philippine Literary History written by Bienvenido Lumbera.

5. finally, this book is not only to show diversity opinions and approaches to illustrate the richness of literary re-visioning, but also appropriate reflection fore some theory and issues like gender studies, Diaspora, and Repsositioning.

References

Ruzi. Suliza Hasim (at. All) (ed). 2007. Revisioning Realities Through Literary Discourse. Selangor, Darul Ehsan. Pearson Malaysia Sdn. Bhd.

3 Tanggapan

  1. jok, ngasi masukan dikit ni, sebelum copy paste dari dokumen lain sebaiknyo dirubah dulu formatnyo ke ekstensi rtf (*.rtf) lewat menu save as – filetype untuk ngilangin <!–[if !supportLists dan kawan-kawannyo😀

  2. Hello, nice site you’ve gotten in here.

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